Captain's Cabin


"Candle Stand"

The notes and ideas below are not set in stone and should only be used as a guide, you may even find a better way to produce the same effect.

Authors Note: The “Candle Stand” is not easy to produce, but any modeller who is building H.M.S. Fly should have the ability to create it. From experience, it is better to break this project into a series of five mini projects. They are, bending the fibre optic cables, creating the candle drips, assembling the candle stand, shaping the candle flames and painting the candle stand. Practise each mini project to perfect your skill, before proceeding to the next stage.

Lets take a look at the "Candle Stand".

Figure C1 shows a candle stand that was used in the film Master and Commander; this will be this used as a guide. It will not be possible to exactly replicate it, and some ‘modelling license’ will be required.

Candle stand
Figure C1 – Candle stand (Master and Commander 31:31 minutes)

The area in Figure C1 containing the candle stand has been cut out, Figure C2. Print the page containing Figure C2 (picture height 252mm), and it can be seen that the wine glass in the forefront of the picture is approximately 51/2 inches high, which is the correct actual height; the candle stand in Figure C2 is therefore the actual height, subject to an allowance for perspective. Note 1: an item at the front of the picture will appear larger than an item at the rear.

The height (not including candles) of the candle stand is 145/160mm and widest width is approximately 160/180mm in the picture. To a scale of 1:64 that is a scale height of 2.3 /2.5mm and scale width of 2.5/2.8mm; these dimensions are used as a guide only.

Figure C2 – Picture of candle stand
Figure C2 – Picture of candle stand

The most important element of the candle stand is the fibre optic cables (FOC’s); they will be used to replicate the flickering flames of the candles. Research found that 0.75mm is commercially the smallest diameter to be purchased, which when equated to a scale of 1:64 creates a candle diameter of 48mm, a little too big!
Viewing Figure C2, the candle diameters vary from 19mm to 22mm, however in relation to the wineglass at the front of the picture, which has been given a height of 51/2 inches (140mm), viewing perspective, must be allowed. The candle diameter is therefore estimated to be 22mm to 25mm in diameter, which to scale is 0.343mm to 0.39mm diameter.


It was suggested that a smaller diameter FOC’s could be found in fibre optic lights. One was located having fibres between 0.3302mm (13 thousandth inch) to 0.4064mm (16 thousandth inch) diameter. It was purchased from www.altereglow.co.uk (Fibre Optic Starlight Lamp - £6.64), Figure C3.

Alternatively here is another link to fibre optics..

 http://www.nairnshire-modelling-supplies.co.uk/electronics-optic-fibre-c-67_219.html

Figure C3 – Fibre optic starlight lamp
C3 – Fibre optic starlight lamp

Whilst doing this research, an alternative method was suggested for creating candles. In place of a FOC, the candles and stand could be made using other material, and for the candle flame a minute amount of yellow fluorescent paint is used. A hidden ultra-violet LED light is then placed above the candle, which is then connected to the ‘flickering candle’ unit. (David Campbell, LiteFX Models, www.anne_david.dsl.pipex.com). This site has some very impressive models and is worth a visit.

If this method is considered, the properties of the fluorescent paint should be determined to ensure that it has a sufficiently long life span.

The main items required are:

FOC with fibres of at least 11 inches (280mm) length
• Micrometer for measuring thickness of FOC’s
• Assorted pack of Sequins
• Titebond II Premium Wood Glue
• Loctite Super Glue Precision (Liquid)
• Difficult Surface Primer (Select a good brand)
• 00000 Dalon D77 Daler-Rowney Paint Brush
• Humbrol MET 11 (Silver), Humbrol MATT 33 (Black), Humbrol 34 (Matt White) and Humbrol 26 (Matt Brown)
• Needle files
• Emery Paper (1500)
• No. 78 HSS Twist Drill or the size to suit FOC used (and the next larger size 77)
• Hobby drill
• Clear Sticky Tape
• Lollipop sticks of something similar
• 0.5 x 3mm Walnut strip*
• 1.5 x 5mm Lime wood strip*
• 3 x 3mm Square Obeche*
• 25 x 9.5 x 2.5mm pine wood*
• Square length (approximately 133mm) of wood
• Hairdryer
• Thermometer reading at least 2000C
• Self closing pointed tweezers (Figure C33)
• Pointed tweezers (Figure C33)
• Plastic sheath approximately 700mm, with internal diameter of 1.0mm
• Dress makers pin
• Boots expert 0.4mm interdental brush
* It is only the dimensions that are important

BENDING THE FIBRE OPTIC CABLES

To bend the FOC’s a tool is made; the bends must be smooth so the internal light rays will not be restricted by ‘kinks’. The principle for the tool is shown in Figure C4.

Principle of the tool to bend FOC
Figure C4 – Principle of the tool to bend FOC

Clear sticky tape is placed on one side of the square length of wood (133mm), Figure C5.

Figure C5 – Clear sticky tape placed on one side of wood
Figure C5 – Clear sticky tape placed on one side of wood

Two construct the lower half of the tool, two lengths of 1.5 x 5mm Lime wood strip have glue applied and placed side by side. The glue will not stick to the clear sticky tape on the wood, so can be easily removed, Figure C6. Clear sticky tape is used to hold them in place whilst drying.

Figure 6 – Two lengths of Lime wood strip placed side by side
Figure 6 – Two lengths of Lime wood strip placed side by side

Three lengths of 0.5 x 3mm Walnut strip are glued and placed on the two strips of Lime wood so they cover half their length, Figure C7.

Figure C7 – Three strips of 0.5 x 3mm Walnut strip are glued to the two Lime wood strips below
Figure C7 – Three strips of 0.5 x 3mm Walnut strip are glued to the two Lime wood strips below

A further 3 strips of 0.5 x 3mm Walnut strip are glued, but this time a 0.5mm space is left in the centre position, Figure C8.

Two strips of 0.5 x 3mm Walnut strip are glued, but this time a FOC is placed between them, and in line with the centre joint of the two Lime wood strips. Use a FOC that is 16 – 17 thousandth of an inch (0.4064 – 0.4318mm), and ensure it is used as a guide only Figure C8, and once the two strips are in place remove it and ensure no glue remains in the gap.

Note: For the actual candles 13 or 14 thousandth of an inch will be selected, (0.3302 or 0.3556mm) for bending in the tool.

Figure C8 – Using a thicker FOC as a “spacer” between the two Walnut stripes
Figure C8 – Using a thicker FOC as a “spacer” between the two Walnut stripes

A dress maker’s pin, ideally about 0.5mm in thickness; this is placed on the first layer of Walnut strip and super glued in place, Figure C9.

Figure C9 – Dress maker’s pin super glued on end of Walnut strip
Figure C9 – Dress maker’s pin super glued on end of Walnut strip

The FOC is going to be heated by hot air from a hair drier, so a hole is drilled in the Lime strip so the hot air can reach the FOC Figure C10, and is then chamfered around its circumference on both sides with a round needle file, Figure C11.

Figure C10 – Hole drilled in the centre of the Lime wood strip
Figure C10 – Hole drilled in the centre of the Lime wood strip

The FOC is going to be bent in hot air, so to prevent the two pins from coming together and squeezing the FOC, a Boots expert 0.4mm interdental brush is super glued to the pin, Figure C11.

Figure C11 – Wire from an interdental brush is super glued to pin to create a stop
Figure C11 – Wire from an interdental brush is super glued to pin to create a stop

The base of the tool is constructed, Figure C12 & C13, which is self explanatory. Ensure that the lower half of the tool slides easily in the base, Figure C14.

Figure C12 – Base of tool
Figure C12 – Base of tool

Figure C13 – Length of base is approximately 96mm
Figure C13 – Length of base is approximately 96mm


Figure C14 – Lower half of tool slides in base
Figure C14 – Lower half of tool slides in base

The top half of the tool is constructed in the same manner; however the length is 160mm and two layers of Lime wood strip are used to give strength. A further additional piece of Lime wood strip is added to make sliding the top half of the tool into the base easier. Note that no metal ‘Stop’ is super glued to the pin; Figure C15 & C16 are self-explanatory.

Figure C15 – Top half of tool
Figure C15 – Top half of tool


Figure C16 – Top half of tool
Figure C16 – Top half of tool

Finally a hole at a shallow angle is drilled into the end of the lower half of the tool, for aligning the FOC prior to being bent, Figure C17 & C18. The diameter should be one size larger than that used for the FOC.

Figure C17 – Hole for aligning FOC in tool
Figure C17 – Hole for aligning FOC in tool


Figure C18 – Hole for aligning FOC in tool
Figure C18 – Hole for aligning FOC in tool

The completed tool, Figure C19.

Figure C19 – Completed tool
Figure C19 – Completed tool

It was found that the best way to bend the FOC was to ensure that it was heated to approximately 180/1900C, with a hair drier. To determine where to place the air hole of the tool in the air stream, a thermometer (food) was used, Figure C20.

Figure 20 – Thermometer to determine temperature of air stream
Figure 20 – Thermometer to determine temperature of air stream

The FOC is fed into the tool Figure 21, and a small piece of clear sticky tape is placed over the exit hole so the FOC does not easily move in the tool.

Figure C21 – FOC fed into lower half of tool
Figure C21 – FOC fed into lower half of tool

The end of the FOC is secured by clear stick tape in the groove in the lower half of the tool; approximately 15mm is in the groove, Figure C22.

Figure C22 – End of FOC is clear sticky taped in groove
Figure C22 – End of FOC is clear sticky taped in groove

The lower half of the tool with the FOC is placed in the base and the top half of the tool is placed on top. The groove in the top half is aligned to the FOC then slowly slid along, ensuring the FOC is kept taught, Figure C23.To check that the FOC is aligned correctly, the FOC and the centre joint of the Lime wood strips can be viewed through the air hole in the top half of the tool, Figure C24; they should be aligned.

Figure C23 – Top half of tool is aligned with the FOC
Figure C23 – Top half of tool is aligned with the FOC


Figure C24 – FOC is aligned to centre joint of Lime wood strips
Figure C24 – FOC is aligned to centre joint of Lime wood strips

The bottom and top air holes are brought into alignment, Figure C25, ready for the hot air to be blown on the FOC.

Figure C25 – Air holes brought into alignment
Figure C25 – Air holes brought into alignment

The hot air is directed at both sides of the air hole to ensure even heating, at approximately 180/1900C onto the FOC for approximately 20 seconds. Figure C26. To avoid the hands being burnt the tool was held with the self-closing tweezers. The tool was removed and quickly and the top half was pushed until it went no further, i.e. the metal pins were closed together, as initially shown in Figure C4. The FOC was allowed to cool for several minutes and it was then removed from the tool, Figure C27.

Figure C26 – Hot air blown onto FOC from both sides of the airholes
Figure C26 – Hot air blown onto FOC from both sides of the air holes

The FOC that has now been successfully bent, Figure C27, and the light rays will flow around the bends.

Figure 27 – Bent FOC
Figure 27 – Bent FOC



MAKING THE CANDLE DRIPS

Sequins are emptied into a container, and the very smallest round blanks are selected, Figure C28. These are approximately 1.00mm in diameter and will form the wax drip trays around the base of each candle. They are not exactly to scale, but they were the nearest suitable component found.

Figure C28 – Blank sequins approximately 1.0mm diameter
Figure C28 – Blank sequins approximately 1.0mm diameter

These sequins are drilled with a 78 Wire Gauge twist drill, Figure C29.

Figure C29 - Wire Gauge twist drill and blank sequins
Figure C29 - Wire Gauge twist drill and blank sequins

Clear stick tape the sequins to the lolly pop stick; their centres are drilled, Figure C30 & C31. Quite a number will need to be drilled as only the sequins that have holes that are as near centre as possible will be selected.

Figure C30 – Blank sequins are sticky taped to lolly stick
Figure C30 – Blank sequins are sticky taped to lolly stick


Figure C31 – Blank sequins with centres drilled
Figure C31 – Blank sequins with centres drilled

These drilled sequins are placed onto the FOC. To make this task easier, lightly chamfer the ends with a needle file, Figure C32. This will make it easier to thread the FOC into the sequin hole.

Positioning the sequins on the FOC requires much patience, but it is achievable. The most important point is that the drilled hole must be exactly the correct diameter for the FOC, and this can only be determined through experimentation. The FOC’s used in these notes are 13/14 thousandth of inch (0.3302 or 0.3556mm) diameter and a 78 wire gauge HSS twist drill was used.

A set of tweezers, Figure C33, was also essential to coax the sequin onto the cable.

Figure C32 – End of FOC chamfered
Figure C32 – End of FOC chamfered


Figure C33 – Self-closing and standard tweezers
Figure C33 – Self-closing and standard tweezers

A sequin is placed onto the chamfer of the FOC, Figure C34.

Figure C34 – Sequin placed on end of FOC
Figure C34 – Sequin placed on end of FOC

The self-closing tweezers are placed approximately 0.5/1.00mm behind the sequin; standard tweezers are used to gently push the sequin onto the FOC. It is important that the self-closing tweezers are initially kept close to it as this will prevent the cable from buckling due the pressure initially required to push the sequin onto the FOC, Figure C35.

Figure C35 – Sequin being pushed onto FOC
Figure C35 – Sequin being pushed onto FOC

The sequin is then pushed down the FOC, Figure C35, until the required position, Figure C37. Once started, they are relatively easy to push along the FOC.

Figure C36 – Sequin is pushed down the FOC
Figure C36 – Sequin is pushed down the FOC

The sequin needs to be 1.0mm or less from the first bend in the cable, Figure C37.

Figure C37 – Sequin is pushed down the FOC to the correct position
Figure C37 – Sequin is pushed down the FOC to the correct position

Once the sequins are in the required positions, locate them with the Difficult Surface Primer, Figure C38. Once the paint is dry the sequins will not move.

NOTE: If the sequins need to be used again they can easily be cut from the FOC.

Figure C38 – Sequins located in position with primer
Figure C38 – Sequins located in position with primer


ASSEMBLING THE CANDLE STAND

Authors Note: The photographs in the following sections have no continuity as the object is to demonstrate the various techniques employed.

On a flat piece of wood make a groove that is approximately 2mm wide 2mm deep, Figure C39. Draw a line at right angles to the groove and then lay a strip of clear sticky tape just below the groove, which will prevent any adhesive sticking to the wood.

Figure C39 – Flat piece of wood with groove
Figure C39 – Flat piece of wood with groove

Position the centre FOC with the candle drip in the groove, running along the line at right angles, Figure C40. Turn-up each piece of clear sticky tape end on itself to create a tab before applying to locate individual FOC’s; number each clear sticky tape strip as this allows for easy removal, i.e. first on last off.

Figure C40 – Positioning of centre FOC
Figure C40 – Positioning of centre FOC

Position the second FOC, again with the candle drip in the groove but very slightly lower than the centre one, Figure C41. It is a good idea to visualize what it will look like before finalizing the positioning of the FOC’s.

Position the last FOC on the opposite side, Figure C42 ensuring it is balanced with the opposite FOC.

Apply a small amount of Titebond II Premium Wood Glue with a pin, Figure C43; leave this to dry for at least four hours. Then carefully remove the clear sticky tape strips in the opposite sequence to which they were laid; apply a little adhesive to the other side of the FOC’s and allow drying.

Figure C41 – Bent FOC positioned to one side
Figure C41 – Bent FOC positioned to one side


Figure C42 – The positioning of the three FOC’s
Figure C42 – The positioning of the three FOC’s


Figure C43 – Glue applied to FOC’s once they are positioned
Figure C43 – Glue applied to FOC’s once they are positioned

For the base a sequin of approximately 2.5mm was used Figure C44, and its centre was drilled so the three FOC’s would pass through until the top was reached.

Figure C44 – Centre of sequin is drilled
Figure C44 – Centre of sequin is drilled

The base sequin is threaded onto the FOC’s and slid to the top; it is fixed using a pin and a small amount of glue, Figure C45.

Figure C45 – Base fixed to candle stand
Figure C45 – Base fixed to candle stand

Note: Initially super glue was used to hold the FOC’s in position, but it would appear that it reacted with the light reflecting surface, allowing light to diffuse from them. ‘Poly Cement’ was tried and this appeared to also react in the same way, but not quite so badly. It was found that Titebond II Premium Wood Glue solved the problem, and also formed a strong bond.


SHAPING THE CANDLE FLAMES

The FOC’s are cut to give a total candle height of approximately 2mm, Figure C46.

Figure C46 – Candle height approximately 2mm
Figure C46 – Candle height approximately 2mm

Each of the candle tops need to be chamfered to create the effect of a ‘flame’; to achieve this, a simple tool will need to be made, Figure C47, which is self explanatory.

Figure C47 – Tool for creating ‘candle flames’
Figure C47 – Tool for creating ‘candle flames’

Emery paper (P1500) is glued to a strip of 3 x 0.5mm Walnut strip, Figure C48.

Figure C48 –Emery paper glued to Walnut strip
Figure C48 –Emery paper glued to Walnut strip

One candle is placed into the tool, Figure C46, and is held in place by self closing tweezers, Figure C49; the FOC’s are protected by a plastic sleeve.

Figure C49 – Tool is holding candle stand
Figure C49 – Tool is holding candle stand

The tip of each candle is then filed to a pencil point, Figure C50, using the emery paper that had been glued to the Walnut strip, Figure C48.

Figure C50 – Emery paper chamfering FOC to a pencil point
Figure C50 – Emery paper chamfering FOC to a pencil point

Figure C51 illustrates the ‘flame tip’ for each candle.

Figure C51 – ‘Flame tips’ for the candles
Figure C51 – ‘Flame tips’ for the candles


PAINTING THE CANDLE STAND

Difficult surface primer is applied to the candle stand, except for the candle flame tips; at this point the primer is taken approximately 0.5mm below the tip, Figure C52.

Figure C52 – First coat of paint
Figure C52 – First coat of paint

Humbrol 33 (MATT Black) was applied to the primer, but just taken to below the primer at the candle tip, Figure C53. This is to create a slight glow in the top of the candle, as shown in Figure C2. Black is used to illuminate the residual light from the FOC’s.

Figure C53 – Humbrol 33 (MATT Black) applied to primer
Figure C53 – Humbrol 33 (MATT Black) applied to primer

Referring to Figure C2 it can be seen that the candles are not a pure white. To achieve a colour that is similar, a touch of Humbrol 26 (MATT Khaki) was added to Humbrol 34 (MATT White).

Prior to applying the paint to the candles it will need to be thinned; this author found that as the area to be painted was so small, the paint on the brush was partly drying before it could be applied, which made painting difficult. A small amount of paint was mixed in a separate container to which white spirit was added to thin the paint. This is very much trial and error. Too thin the paint could not be controlled and too thick it would dry as it was being applied. Figure C54 illustrates the painted candles.

Figure C54 – Painted candles
Figure C54 – Painted candles

The stand was painted Humbrol 11 (MET Silver) Figure 55, to the base of the candles.

Figure C55 – Candle stand painted silver
Figure C55 – Candle stand painted silver

Initially the dimensions of the candle stand obtained from Figure C2 were approximately 2.8mm high and 2.5mm wide. What has been achieved is a scale candle stand height of 3.5mm (actual 224mm [9 inches]); scale stand width of 4mm (actual 256mm [10 inches]) and an overall scale height including candle flames of 5.5mm (actual 352mm [14 inches]), Figure C58. Whilst a little bigger than planned, the candle stand has been placed on the table in the mock up model, Figure C56, and looks acceptable.

Figure C56 – Candle stand placed on table in mock up model
Figure C56 – Candle stand placed on table in mock up model

To protect the FOC’s they are placed in a plastic sheaf, Figure C57.

Figure C57 – Fibre optic cables put in plastic sheaf to protect them
Figure C57 – Fibre optic cables put in plastic sheaf to protect them


Figure C58 – Measurement of candle stand (mm)
Figure C58 – Measurement of candle stand (mm)

Later in the build the candle stand will be connected to a “Candle Flickering Unit”, to create additional realism; the final result should look like Figure C59. Note the ‘glow’ at the top of each candle.

Figure C59 – Candle stand connected to LED unit
Figure C59 – Candle stand connected to LED unit

Need a PDF Here it is: Candle Stand PDF

See the finished Candle Stand on YouTube

Thank you Lloyd Matthews another great section on the Captains Cabin.

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